ヤンゴン日本語教室だより/News From the University of Yangon

ヤンゴン日本語教室便り  2017年6月5日 GJO 日本語講師 今井己知子

News from the Japanese Classroom (5th June 2017) Michiko Imai, Yangon GJO

GJOヤンゴンの日本語講座は本学からヤンゴン大学への寄贈講座で単位が発生しない非正規授業です。授業は放課後に行われ、熱心な学生たちが自分たちの学部や専攻の授業が終わってわざわざミャンマー語学科の校舎まで通ってきます。日本に留学したい、日系企業に就職したいという希望を持って勉強している学生が多いです。今のヤンゴンでは日本語が出来ると高給が保証されているからです。でも、残念なことに全ての語学教室に共通していることですが、レベルが上に進むにつれて、数が減ってきます。/The GJO Yangon Japanese language course is a contribution from TUFS, and is a part-time, non-credit course. The lessons are conducted after school, and students with enthusiasm take the trouble to come to the Burmese language faculty building once the lessons at each of their respective faculties have finished. Many of them are studying with the hope to study abroad in Japan or find employment in Japanese companies that operate overseas. This is because today in Myanmar, a high salary is guaranteed for those know Japanese. However, as an unfortunate thing that is common among all language subjects, the more advanced the lessons become the fewer students attend.
来なくなる理由は様々でしょうが、今年は出来るだけ定着して、継続して受講する学生を増やすよう様々なアプローチが必要だと考えています。自分が様々な語学に挑戦してはドロップアウトを繰り返してきたのを振り返ってみると、途中で習うのを止めてしまったのは、その言葉が使われている国や地域の文化に対する知識の欠如が考えられます。毎週毎週どんどん難しくなっていく文法を習うだけでは無味乾燥な感じでした。新しい語彙を習いながら、その語の写真を見たり、またはその語にまつわる話などを聞いたりすれば興味が増すと思われます。/There are various reasons why they stop being able to come, but this year I think that we need to take various approaches to increase the number of students who continue with the course. As I look back on the various language classes that I’ve taken on and dropped out of, I think that the reason for stopping halfway was a lack of knowledge of the culture in the countries and areas where those languages are spoken. Simply learning increasingly difficult grammar week after week was uninteresting. I think that it could be more interesting if, while learning new vocabulary, we did things like looking at pictures and listening to stories related to those words.
ヤンゴンの町は日本車であふれかえっているのに、ミャンマー人の中には日本について無知な人が多いのが意外でした。とりあえず日本をもっと知ってもらうために6月から始まる新学期の授業で文化紹介を少しずつ取り入れようかと思案中です。/The city of Yangon is full of Japanese-made cars, but among Myanmar’s people there are surprisingly many who have no knowledge of Japan. For the time being, in order to have the students know more about Japan, I am planning to introduce Japanese culture to the lessons little by little once they begin in the new term in June.


ヤンゴン日本語教室便り  2017年5月4日 GJO 日本語講師 今井己知子

News from the Japanese Classroom (4th May 2017) Michiko Imai, Yangon GJO

ヤンゴン大学は3月末に期末試験が終わり、4月5月と続く長いお休みに入りました。ヤンゴンは4月になると、連日35℃以上、体感温度42℃~49℃にすっかりもなる酷暑が続くので、キャンパスを訪れる学生は殆どいません。学生たちは帰省したり、友達と旅行したり、すっかり休暇モードに入ります。2か月もの休みの間、全く日本語に触れないでいるので、新学期が始まるころにはせっかく苦労して覚えた日本語も忘却の彼方に。特に漢字は簡単に忘れてしまうので、何とかしたいと思っていたところ、4月4日にヤンゴン外国語大学で行われた日本語教育セミナーで、国際交流基金の無料の表記学習アプリのビラがあったので、「渡りに船」と、早速翌日GJOヤンゴンのFacebookで紹介しました。/At the University of Yangon, the end of term exams finished at the end of March, we entered the long holiday that extends through April and May. In Yangon, once April begins, the days over 35℃ follow consecutively and there is a long period of intense heat that feels around 42℃ -49℃, so there are hardly any students visiting the campus. They are in full holiday mode, either returned home or travelling with friends. To places where, during the two-month holiday, they will forget the Japanese they worked so hard to remember by the time the new term starts since they won’t have any contact with Japanese. In particular, kanji is easy to forget, and just as I was thinking I wanted to do something about it, at a Japanese language education seminar held at the University of Yangon on 4th April, the was a flyer about the Japan Foundation’s free learning app, so without delay I introduced it on the GJO Yangon Facebook page the next day.
この無料アプリ”Memory Hint”は、スマホにダウンロードすれば、イラストや音声で漢字やひらがな・カタカナを自習出来て、クイズもあるというスグレモノです。ヤンゴン大学の学生たちも他の国の若者同様、スマホ大好きなので、このアプリなら手軽に勉強できるから、きっと学生たちも喜んでくれるに違いないと思って勇んで掲載したのはいいけれど、「いいね!」を教えてくれたのはたった12人です。「いいね!」と思っていないのか、クリックし忘れたのか、はたまたGJOヤンゴンのアカウントを訪れていないのか…。休みに入る前に「連絡事項はGJOヤンゴンのFacebookを通じてしますから、必ずよくチェックするように。分かりましたか?OK?」「はーい!」「OK!」と返事だけは調子良かったけれど。/By downloading this brilliant free app, ‘Memory Hint’, you can self-study kanji, hiragana and katakana with illustrations and voice audio, and you can also take quizzes. Just like young people in other countries, the students at the University of Yangon love smartphones, and they can use this app to study easily, so thinking that the students would surely be happy to receive it I enthusiastically made the post, but only 12 people ‘liked’ it. Perhaps they didn’t ‘like’ it, or they forgot to click on it, or they haven’t joined the GJO Yangon group… Even though everything seemed OK before we entered the holiday when I told them “I will be sending messages through GJO Yangon’s Facebook group, so be sure to check it often! Understood? OK?” “Yes!” “OK!”.
Level 1の学生達の中には解読不可能なひらがなを書いたりカタカナをしっかり覚えていなかったりする学生もいるし、Level 3の学生は宇宙人の文字のような漢字を書く学生もいるので、来学期は文字学習を強化しなければなりません。それに、学生との連絡の緊密化、連絡手段の確立も新たな課題のようです。/Amongst the Level 1 students there are some who write indecipherable hiragana and who don’t have a firm grasp on katakana, and there are Level 3 students who write alien kanji, so next term we need to strengthen their study of characters. In addition, it seems that tightening communication with the students and establishing methods of communication is a new problem.


ヤンゴン日本語教室便り  2017年3月31日 GJO 日本語講師 今井己知子

News from the Japanese Classroom (31st March 2017) Michiko Imai, Yangon GJO

12月から始まった新学期も3月2週目の期末試験で何とか無事に終わりを迎えました。/Somehow, we finished the academic term that started in December without incident with the end of term exams in the second week of March.
6月から一緒に勉強してきたLevel 4の学生とは今学期でお別れです。そのせいかどうか分かりませんが、国際交流基金の日本語教育インターンとして12月から授業を担当してくれている本学大学院生に、日本語の歌を教えてほしいと言ってきました。Level4の漢字教育を担当してくれたインターンとは同世代の親近感で、頼みやすいのでしょう。/This term, I will part ways with the Level 4 students who have been studying together with me since June. I’m not sure whether it’s because of that, but they told the graduate student from this university who has been in charge of lessons since December as Japan Foundation Japanese language education interns told me that they wanted them to her them some Japanese songs. Being of the same generation, it must be easy for the students to ask the intern in charge of the Level 4 Kanji class.
でも、頼まれたインターンは大弱り。どんな歌が歌いたいのか尋ねても「先生の一番好きな歌」。実は彼女は英語の歌を聴くのが好きだそうで、「先生の一番好きな歌」と言われても日本語の歌では思い浮かばないみたいです。それで、二人して、どうしたものか頭を悩ませました。小学唱歌はゆっくりで、メロディーもきれいだけど結構格調高い言葉が入っているので日本語初級の学生たちには理解しにくいし。歌いやすくても古すぎる演歌は今の若者にはお呼びじゃないし。今の若い人の歌となると、私は全く知らないので手も足も出ません。少し昔の歌でも、歌いやすいメロディーで、あまり難しすぎない歌詞で、となると全く思いつきませんでした。ちっとも決まらないのに、どんどん約束の日が近づいてきたので、私の独断と偏見で『涙そうそう』にしました。/However, the intern they asked was at a loss. Even when she asked them what kind of song they wanted to hear, the students said ‘your favourite song’. She actually likes listening to songs in English, so even when asked about her favourite song it seems that she couldn’t think of one in Japanese. So, the two of us wracked our brains on what we should do. Primary school songs are slow and the melodies are also pretty, but they use some fairly obscure words, so would be difficult for elementary Japanese language students to understand. Also, traditional Japanese songs that are too old might not be appealing to the young students. I know nothing at all about the music of today’s young people, so there was nothing I could do. When it came to songs that aren’t too old, have a melody that’s easy to sing, and have lyrics that aren’t too difficult, I couldn’t think of any. Though we hadn’t quite decided, the day that we’d promised quickly drew near, so with my own bias I decided on ‘Nada Sōsō’.

Yangon170414_1 結局この歌のレッスンに参加したのはLevel 4の学生のうち4人だけでした。歌詞を渡して、辞書を引いてもらって、『涙そうそう』がサウンドトラックとして使われた映画の解説もしたけど、やっぱりそれでも相当難しかったみたいです。You Tubeで何度も曲を流して一緒に歌って小1時間の日本語の歌のレッスンは終わりました。楽しんでくれたかどうかはあまり分かりませんが。初級者に適当な外国語の歌を選ぶのは本当に難しいですね。私もミャンマー語のポップスなんて舌が回らないし、意味が分からないし、お手上げです。/In the end, only four students came to the lesson. We handed out the song lyrics, had them check dictionaries, gave an explanation of a film that used the song in its soundtrack, but of course it still seemed to be considerably difficult. We finished a short one-hour lesson after playing the song several times on YouTube and singing it together. I’m not sure whether or not they enjoyed it though. Choosing a foreign language song suitable for elementary level learners is quite difficult, isn’t it? I can’t quite get my tongue around pop songs in Malay either, and I don’t understand the meanings, so they are beyond me.
どなたか、日本語学習初級者が理解できる適当な歌があったら教えてください。私もこれから探してみます。よろしくお願いします。/If anybody know of a suitable song that elementary Japanese learners can understand, please let me know. I will keep on searching.

Yangon170414_2


ヤンゴン日本語教室便り  2017年3月6日 GJOヤンゴン 今井己知子

News from the Japanese Classroom (6th March 2017) Michiko Imai, Yangon GJO

仏教国ミャンマーでは各地に巨大な仏像があり、それぞれ人々の篤い信仰の対象となっています。ヤンゴンから電車やバスで2時間の町、バゴー(昔はペグーと呼ばれていました)には二つ寝釈迦像があります。一つは994年に建立されたと言われているシュエターリャウンBuddhaとその近くに新しく作られたミャッターリャウンBuddhaです。/In the Buddhist country of Myanmar, there are several giant Buddha statues which each act as an object of worship for people’s strong faith. In Bago, a town 2 hours by bus or train form Yangon which was once called ‘Pegu’, there are two reclining Buddhas. The first is the Shwethalyaung Buddha, said to have been erected in the year 994, and the second is the recently-constructed Mya Tha Lyaung Reclining Buddha.
この二つの寝釈迦像は建立年も違うせいか、容貌が際立って異なっています。/Perhaps because the eras these two reclining Buddhas were built in were also different, they have starkly different appearances.

こちらは994年に作られたと言われるシュエターリャウン寝釈迦仏で、ミャンマーの他の地域で見る寝釈迦像と共通した白い肌、ぱっちり開いた大きな目、微笑をたたえた慈悲深そうな穏やかなお顔といった特徴があります。/This is the Shwethalyaung Reclining Buddha said to have been constructed in the year 994. Just like the reclining Buddhas that can be seen in the other areas in Myanmar, it has features such as white skin; large, wide eyes; and a smiling, deeply compassionate-looking calm expression.

yangon1316_1

一方こちらは2002年に善男善女の寄付によって建てられたナウンドージーミャッターリャウン寝釈迦仏です。瞳の色も薄いし、私にはどう見ても西洋人にしか見えない仏様です。/This is the Naungdawgyi Mya Tha Lyaung Reclining Buddha built in 2002 from donations from pious men and women. The iris is pale in colour, and to me it’s a Buddha I can only see as a western person.

yangon1316_2

それで、既習文型の応用練習をするのに、学生も良く知っているこの二つの仏像を使おうと思い、Qを出してみましたが、反応がありません。/As practice using the sentence patters they had learned, I thought I would try using these two Buddhas that are well-known to the students to ask questions, but there were no replies.

いつもなら、何人かから、活発に答えが返ってくるのにこの日はシーン。どうしてかなと思って学生に尋ねてみると、今度は口々に答えを言わない理由を言いました。曰く、ミャンマーでは仏像はrespectの対象なので、その容貌について批評することはない。どんな容貌であっても全て仏陀を表していてrespectしているので、容貌については何も思わない。それで、少し危険かなと思いつつ、「私はシュエターリャウンbuddhaの方が好きです。このbuddhaはハンサムです。」と言ってみると、何人もの学生が困惑した顔をしています。一人の学生に、ミャンマーでは「ハンサム」というのは人間にしか使わない、仏像について使わないと言われました。/は人間にしか使わない、仏像について使わないと言われました。
Usually, there would be a lively response from several people, but that day there was silence. When I asked the students why, this time they unanimously told me the reason. In Myanmar, it is said that the Buddha is an object of respect, and should not be criticised. Regardless of the appearance, they show respect to all Buddhas, so they do not assess the appearance. When I said, while thinking it was a bit risky, “I like the Shwethalyaung Buddha more. It’s more handsome.” They students all looked perplexed. One student told me that in Myanmar, they only use the word ‘handsome’ for people. I was told that they don’t use it for the Buddha.

そこで、与謝野晶子の「鎌倉や御仏ながら釈迦牟尼は美男におわす夏木立かな」という有名なうたを紹介することにしました。もちろんこの歌そのものを紹介しても初級前半の実力の彼女たちには理解できないので、こういう歌があるという事実だけを伝えることにしました。
「みんな、鎌倉知っていますか。鎌倉に大きいBuddhaのstatueがあります。」ここで、何人もしきりにうなずきました。
「この鎌倉の大仏、大きいBuddhaについて日本の有名なpoetがpoemを作りました。
その人はpoemで、Buddhaを「ハンサムだ」と言いました。」ここで一同おーっと驚く。
「ミャンマーではBuddhaについてハンサムと言いませんが、日本では言ってもいいです。このpoemはとても有名です。たくさんの日本人が知っています」一同、驚いたり、感慨深そうな顔でしきりに頷いたり。/With that, I decided to introduce them to Akiko Yosano’s famous poem “Though a Buddha, how handsome this statue among the summer foliage”. Of course, even if I introduced them to it, an elementary level Japanese class wouldn’t be able to understand this poem, but I just told them the fact that it exists.

“Does everyone know Kamakura? In Kamakura, there is a big Buddha statue.”
Here, many people nodded vigorously.
“A famous Japanese poet wrote a poem about this big Buddha, the Great Buddha of Kamakura. That person called the Buddha ‘handsome’ in the poem.” Here, everyone gasped in surprise.
“In Myanmar you don’t say that the Buddha is handsome, but in Japan it’s ok. This poem is very famous. Lots of Japanese people know it.”
Everyone looked surprised, and nodded vigorously with deeply-moved-looking faces.

「ぜひ鎌倉へ行って、ハンサムなBuddhaを見てくださいね。私も鎌倉へ行ったことがありませんから、行きたいです」「はい、行きたいです」で無事この場は終わりました。
外国人に日本語を教えていると価値観の相違に触れて興味深いことが時々あります。学生も自分たちと違う日本や日本人の価値観に触れて、日本についての知識を深めるとともに視野を広めてほしいと思います。/We finished peacefully, with “Please do go to Kamakura and see the handsome Buddha. I’ve never been to Kamakura either, so I want to go.” “yes, we want to go.”. When you teach Japanese to foreigners, sometimes there are interesting times where you come into contact with differences in values. Along with deepening their knowledge of Japan, I would like the students to broaden their outlook as well.


ヤンゴン日本語教室便り  2017年2月6日 GJOヤンゴン 今井己知子

News from the Japanese Classroom (6th January 2017) Michiko Imai, Yangon GJO

日本語教室では習った文型を使って自分のことを話す練習をします。その時に学生が考えていることが垣間見えて興味深いです。/The students practised using the sentence structures they had learned in class to talk about themselves. Taking a peek into what they talked about is very interesting.

LEVEL3のクラスでは「~したいです」の文型を使って、「もし宝くじで1億チャット当たったら何をしたいですか」という質問に答える練習をしました。/The level three class prasticed using the “I want to…” structure to answer the question “If you won one hundred million kyat in the lottery, what would you want to do?”

「家を買いたいです」や「世界を旅行したいです」「車を買いたいです」などの中に2,3人の女子学生が「韓国へ行きたいです。」と答えたのには正直言って少しがっかり。「韓国で何をしたいですか」の質問には、「×××(韓国のスター)に会いたいです」やら「韓国のお酒が飲みたいです」。2,3人が「日本へ行きたいです。日本で買い物したいです」と言ってくれましたが、日本語を教えている私としては、どこか外国へ行きたいなら「日本へ行きたいです」と言ってほしかったです。ミャンマーでの韓国の人気や影響力は依然強いのだと実感させられました。もっと授業に日本の魅力を盛り込んで、半数以上の学生が「日本へ行きたい」と言ってくれるように頑張らなくちゃと闘魂を燃やしてしまいました。/Among students saying “I want to buy a house”, “I want to travel the world” and “I want to buy a car”, there were two or three female students who said “I want to go to Korea”, but I was a little disappointed by the honest answers. To the question “why do you want to go to Korea?” they answered things like “because I want to meet (a Korean celebrity)” and “because I want to drink Korean alcohol”. Two or three said “I want to go to Japan. I want to go shopping in Japan.”, but as someone who teaches Japanese, I wanted those wo said they wanted to travel abroad to say that they wanted to go to Japan. I was made to feel how the popularity and influence of Korea is still strong in Myanmar. I ended up with my fighting spirit burning to try my best to incorporate the appeal on Japan into the lessons more so that over half of the students will say “I want to go to Japan”.

LEVEL4のクラスでは「~になりたいです」の文型を使って、「今度生まれ変わったら何になりたいですか」という質問に答えてもらいました。国民の大半が上座部仏教を信じるミャンマーでこのクラスも全員が輪廻転生の教えを受け入れている仏教徒だったので、この質問も問題なくすることが出来ました。まず、「何人になりたいか」では全員がミャンマー人と答えたのにも興味深かったです。みんな愛国心が強く自分の国に誇りを持っているということでしょうか。次に「今度は男になりたいか、女になりたいか」の質問で全員が「次に生まれ変わったら男になりたい」と答えたのには少し驚きました。もう一度女性に生まれ変わりたいという答えも半分ぐらいあるかと予想していたからです。どうしてか理由を尋ねると異口同音に「先生、ミャンマーでは男の方が女より偉いです」。「えー、そうですか。でもドー・アウンサンスーチーは女性だし、ミャンマーの女の人は強いでしょう?」「うううん。そうですけど。」「ミャンマー人の奥さんは家で強いです。そう聞きました」と言うと、「はい、家では女の人、強いです。でも、socially(社会的には)男の方がstatus上です。」ほかのみんなもうんうんと頷いていました。この世代だからなのか、高学歴の女性だからなのか、まだ社会に出ていない人たちだからなのか、ミャンマーに住んでまだ1年も経っていない私には分からないですが、他の東南アジア諸国同様、働き者の女性が多いこの国で、20歳になるかならないかの若い女性たちの一部はこのように考えているのだと知り、大変興味深かったです。/In the level 4 class, the students practised using the sentence structure “I want to become…” to answer the question “What would you want to be if you were reincarnated?”. Over half of the country’s citizens believe in Theravada Buddhism, and in the class all the students were Buddhists who had been taught about the cycle of reincarnation, so they were able to answer the question without any problems. It was very interesting how, when asked “what nationality would you want to be born as?”, all answered “Burmese”. I wonder if that means they all have a strong sense of patriotism and are proud of their country. Next, when asked “would you want to be a man or a woman?”, I was a little surprised at how all of the students answered “if I was reincarnated I would want to be a man”. I was expecting at least half to say they want to be reincarnated as a woman. When I asked why, they said, as one, “because in Myanmar, men are valued over women”. I said, “Is that so? But Aung San Suu Kyi is a woman, so aren’t Burmese women powerful?” and they said, “Yes, that is true.” When I said, “Burmese women are powerful in the household. That’s what I heard,” they said “yes, they are powerful in the household. But men have a higher status socially”. Everyone else agreed, nodding. Having only been living in Myanmar for less than a year, I don’t know if its because they’re of this generation, or because they’re highly-educated women, or perhaps because they’re not yet fully-fledged members of society, but it was very interesting to learn that, in this country that, like all other East Asian countries, has lots of hardworking women, some young women who have barely turned twenty thinking this way.


ヤンゴン日本語教室便り  2017年1月6日  GJOヤンゴン 今井己知子

News from the Japanese Classroom (6th January 2017) Michiko Imai, Yangon GJO

ミャンマーでは12月から新年度新学期が始まります。GJOヤンゴンも12月5日から新学期が始まりました。今学期は国際交流基金の日本語インターンとして本学大学院生も助っ人としてGJOヤンゴンに加わり、フレッシュな戦力が増強されました。
戦力が増えたことを受けて、今学期は全くゼロから日本語を始めるレベル1と、前学期から進級したレベル3とレベル4の合計3クラスを開講しました。/In Myanmar, the new academic year begins in December. At Yangon GJO too, the new term began on 5th December. This term, out personnel was strengthened as part of the Japan Foundation’s Japanese language internship as graduate students at TUFS were added to Yangon GJO as supporters. Now that our personnel has grown, this term we offered a total of three classes from level one for those starting from scratch to levels three and four for those progressing form last term.

レベル1は新入生の入学式等諸行事があったため12月14日にやっとオリエンテーションを行うことが出来ました。今のところ登録しているのは50名ほどですが、実際に出席している人数を数えると、毎回新しい人が入っているのに40人前後です。これもあとひと月ほどすれば落ち着くと思います。今学期から教科書等の無償配布は行わず、ミャンマーでの版権を得て当地で出版された教科書『みんなの日本語Ⅰ』を学生自身で購入してもらうことになりました。6000チャット(ミャンマーの朝ごはんでよく食べられる麺料理「モヒンガー」約12杯分、バス乗車30回分に相当)するので、冷やかし半分に参加する学生は少ないと思われます。/For level one, the new students had events like their enrolment ceremonies, but we were finally able to hold the orientation on 14th December. Currently, there are around 50 people enrolled, but when I counted those who actually turn up, even though there are new people coming every time, there are around 40. I think that this number will become stable after a month. Form this term, we will not be distributing things like textbooks for free, and students themselves will be buying ‘Minna no Nihongo I’, which has gained copyright and been published in Myanmar. It costs 6000 kyat (enough for around 12 bowls of mohinga, a typical breakfast noodle dish in Myanmar, or 30 bus rides), so I don’t think many students will be there just to see what it’s like.

今回は様々な専攻の学生が受講していて、全体の40%近くを占める国文学科ミャンマー語の学生の他に、数学・産業化学・地質学・考古学・植物学・英語・コンピューターサイエンス・物理学・地理学など多岐に渡っています。圧倒的に多い女子学生の中に男子学生も十名ほど混じっていて、隅の方で固まっているのが微笑ましくもあります。/This time students taking many various subjects are attending, and aside from the close to 40% who are taking Burmese in the literature department, there is a wide range including maths, industrial chemistry, geology, archaeology, botany, English, computer science, physics, and geography. The students are overwhelmingly female, with around 10 male students mixed in among them, and it’s funny seeing them crowding into the corner.

これから3か月間、何人が残るでしょうか。専攻が多様性に富んでいる方がお互いに刺激になるので、出来るだけ様々な専攻の学生に頑張って生き残ってほしいものです。
そしてもちろん男子学生にも。/I wonder how many will remain after one month. Having a rich diversity of majors means that the students stimulate each other more, so I hope that as much as possible students with many different majors will persevere and survive. Including, of course, the male students.

写真は日本語インターンの先生が、レベル1の第2課を教えているところです。若くて可愛い先生に日本語を習えて、学生たちも嬉しそうに生き生きと勉強していました。/The photo is of one of the Japanese teaching interns teaching chapter two in the level one class. The students seemed happy to learn form a cute, young Japanese teacher, and were studying enthusiastically.


ヤンゴン日本語教室便り  2016年12月1日     GJOヤンゴン 今井己知子

News from the Japanese Classroom (1st December 2017) Michiko Imai, YangonGJO

外国人の日本語能力を測定し、認定することを目的とした「日本語能力試験」という試験が国内外で年2回実施されており、今年の2回目が12月4日に行われます。GJOヤンゴンで日本語を勉強している学生も何人か受験するのでその問題集をGJOオフィスへ借りに来ました。3人で2冊選び出し、私に、「先生、N4(レベル)の本が(もう)1冊欲しいです。あー、あー、such a book、うー。▽○✖◆□★☆。」日本語で「こんな本」と言いたいのですが、「こんなN」は未習ですので言えません。それで私が、「どんな本ですか。どんな本が欲しいですか」と尋ねると、今度は「薄い本」の「薄い」が言えなくて3人で頭を抱えてワイワイ。「軽い本です!」「軽い本?」「いえ、重い本です」「重い本?ああ、じゃあ、これですか」と意地悪婆さんがわざと分厚くて重い本を差し出すと、また3人で「✖✖○○?」「▽▼△□●!」「★★☆☆!?」と協議。一人が突然思い出して「薄いー!」と喜びの声を上げると「薄い本です!」と三人が口をそろえて言いました。「薄いー厚い」、「重いー軽い」は、日本に住んでいればよく使う必要不可欠な語ですが、ミャンマーでは日本語を使う機会が少ないから、なかなか出てこないようです。/The Japanese Language Proficiency Test, which aims to measure and certify the Japanese language aptitude of foreigners, is carried out twice annually both within and outside Japan, and this year the second test will be on 4th December. There are many students studying Japanese at Yangon GJO who are taking the test, so they came to the GJO to borrow the workbooks. Three of them chose two books, and said to me “we want one (more) N4 (level) book. Er… er… such a book, um… ○◆□★☆.” They wanted to say “this kind of book” in Japanese, but they hadn’t learned how to say “this kind of …” yet, so they couldn’t. So, I asked “what kind of book? What kind of book do you want?”, and this time they didn’t know how to say the word “thin” as in “a thin book”, so the three of them held their heads in their hands and made a racket.

“A light book!”
“A light book?”
“No, a heavy book.”

When, like a pedantic old woman I said “A heavy book? Ah, well, is it this one?” and deliberately held out a massive, heavy book, the three of them conferred with each other again, going “✖✖○○?” “▽▼△□●!” “★★☆☆!?” Then, one of them suddenly remembered and excitedly shouted “thin!” and the three of them said in unison “a thin book!”. If you’re living in Japan, ‘thin and thick’ and ‘light and heavy’ are all commonly-used, essential words, but since there aren’t many opportunities to use Japanese in Myanmar, it seems that they don’t easily come to mind.

問題集を選んだ後、一人が宮崎駿監督の『天空の城ラピュタ』の英語版の本を借りました。前にはほかの学生が『トトロ』を借りたことがあります。宮崎駿作品はミャンマーでも人気があるようです。これを日本語で読めるようになってほしいなと思いつつ、佐野洋子の『100万回生きたねこ』を勧めてみました。これは比較的平易な日本語で書かれた素晴らしい本です。1匹の傲岸不遜な猫が輪廻転生を繰り返し、最後に他者を愛することを知った時、「生きかえらなくなった」、つまり生まれ変わる必要がなくなったという仏教徒が多数派のミャンマー人には大変分かりやすい感動的な内容なので、是非読んで欲しいと思いました。/After choosing a workbook, one person borrowed the English edition of the book for Hayao Miyazaki’s ‘Castle in the Sky’. Before, another student came to borrow ‘Totoro’. It seems that the works of Miyazaki are popular even in Myanmar. Wishing more and more that they would become able to read these in Japanese, I recommended they read Yoko Sano’s ‘The Cat That Lived a Million Times’. This is a wonderful book that is written in relatively simple Japanese. It is a story about an arrogant cat in an endless cycle of death and rebirth until it finally knows what it is to love another, when it “stopped coming back to life”. In other words, it stops being reborn and dies. For the people of Myanmar, a Buddhist-majority country, the content is very easy to understand and quite touching, so I definitely wanted them to read it.
表紙を見せて、「はい、みんな、これ読んで」。「うー。ひゃく……??」「100万回」の「万」を忘れてしまったようで、三人でまたしても協議。「えーー、習いましたよ。ほらぁーー」「うーん、うーん」。1分の呻吟の後、「ああ、まん?」。次の「回」も「生きた」も読めず、助け舟を出してやっと『100万回生きたねこ』が「ひゃくまんかいいきたねこ」と書いてあるのだと分かり、意味も分かって一同納得。試験が終わったら是非借りるよう強く勧めておきました。それにしても「薄い」や「重い」のような基本的な形容詞、「万」「回」「生きる」のような簡単な漢字も覚えていなくてN4の試験大丈夫かしらん。/I showed them the front cover and said “everyone, read this”. They said, “Er… A hundred?”. It seems they forgot the “万” (ten thousand) in “100万回”, so the three started another discussion.

“Huh… we’ve already learned this. Look!”
“Hmm… Hmm…”

After a minute’s worth of groaning,

“Ah, ‘man’?”

Next, they couldn’t read ‘回’ or ‘生きた’, so I finally gave them a hint by telling them that ‘100万回生きたねこ’ was read ‘hyaku man kai ikita neko’, and then everyone understood the meaning. I strongly recommended they read it once the test was over. Even so, if they can’t remember basic adjectives like ‘thin’ and heavy’ and simple kanji like ‘万’, ‘回’ and ‘生きる’, I don’t know whether the N4 test will go well.

教室外でいかにたくさん日本語に触れるか、触れたくなるかが日本語上達の鍵なので、ミャンマー人学生の興味を引く、魅力的でかつ、平易な日本語の本やDVDを導入する必要性を強く感じました。/The amount you come into contact with and want to come into contact with Japanese outside the classroom is key to learning Japanese, so I felt the strong need to bring in books and DVDs in simple Japanese to win over the interest of Burmese students.

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GJO配架の図書を借りに来た学生たち /Students who came to the GJO library to borrow books

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貸出簿に記入中 /Filling in the loan book


ヤンゴン日本語教室便り  2016年11月3日     GJOヤンゴン 今井己知子

News from the Japanese Classroom (3rd Novemebr 2017) Michiko Imai, Yangon GJO.

ただいまヤンゴン大学は学期休み中で、GJOヤンゴンの日本語教室もお休みです。それで今月は授業以外のことについてご紹介したいと思います。/Right now, the University on Yangon is in the middle of its summer holiday, and there are no Yangon GJO Japanese lessons. So, I would like to list a few things unrelated to lessons.

GJOヤンゴンには本学からヤンゴン大学に寄贈された日本語及び英語の図書が合わせて1200冊以上もあります。日本語能力試験の問題集から日本社会・日本文化紹介、旅行書、絵本、小説など多岐に渡っています。でも残念ながら、この図書館の存在はあまり知られていないようで、私が赴任してから借りに来たのはたった一人でした。/At Yangon GJO, the Japanese and English books donated to the University of Yangon from TUFS now total to over 1,200. The books cover a wide range, from Japanese Language Proficiency Test workbooks to introductions to Japanese society and culture, travel guides, picture books, novels and so on. However, unfortunately it seems that not many people know about this library, as since I took up this position only one person has come to borrow books.

それで、先日GJOヤンゴンのビザ関係等をお世話してくださっている国文科の先生に
図書館をご紹介しました。この先生は、インターネットの学習サイトで日本語を独習してみたり、ミャンマー語日本語辞書を買ったりと、大いに日本に関心をお持ちです。
「ヤンゴン大学の先生や学生なら3冊2週間まで借りられるんですよ」とお教えすると熱心に書架を眺めて、2冊取り出して借りて行かれました。写真の本は読み終えたので今、3冊目に挑戦中です。日本の漫画は哲学的だったり、歴史上の人物を取り扱ったりと大変面白くて読みごたえがあるので是非日本語を勉強して、これらの書籍を読んでくださいと、日本語学習も勧めておきました。/So, the other day I introduced the library to a teacher at the literature department, who many times has helped me at Yangon GJO with things such as visas. This teacher has a great interest in Japanese and has been self-studying Japanese with an online learning site and buying Burmese-Japanese dictionaries. When I said “we can lend three books for up to two weeks to University of Yangon teachers and students”, he enthusiastically searched through the bookcase and took two books out to borrow. He has finished reading the books in the photo, and is in the middle of tackling his third. I also recommended Japanese manga for Japanese language study, as it is incredibly interesting, often being philosophical and dealing with historical figures, so it is worth reading.

図書館案内のポスターも今までは日本語でしたが、ミャンマー語に翻訳したものを新学期から建物ホールの良く見える掲示板に掲示し、一人でも多くの人に借りてもらえるようにしたいと思います。誰も借りてくれないとせっかくの素晴らしい蔵書も、宝の持ち腐れになってしまいますから。/Up to now, the posters for the library have been in Japanese, but I hope to put the Burmese translation up on the notice boards in the halls where it will be easy to see, and to have lots of people come to borrow books. It would be a shame if no one comes, as this wonderful collection would go to waste.

もう一つ、嬉しいことがありました。GJOヤンゴンは国文科の先生たちに色々なことを助けていただいているのですが、GJOヤンゴンの飲料水や電気関係などをお世話してくださっている先生が、「12月から僕、日本語勉強します」と言ってくれました。
ヤンゴン大学に日本語学習者が教師の間にも学生の間にも、どんどん増えるように頑張りたいです。/One more good thing has happened. The teachers at the literature department are always helping me at Yangon GJO will all sorts of things, and the teacher who helps me with things like Yangon GJO’s drinking water and electricity told me that from December, he will be studying Japanese. I hope to do my best to steadily increase the number of learners of Japanese at the University of Yangon among both students and teachers.

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本を借りに来た国文学科の先生 The literature department teacher who came to borrow books


ヤンゴン日本語教室便り  2016年10月5日     GJOヤンゴン 今井己知子

News from the Japanese Classroom (5th October 2017) Michiko Imai, Yangon GJO.

GJOヤンゴン日本語クラスは8月末に授業を終了し、9月1日と2日にLEVEL2とLEVEL3の期末試験を行いました。/Yangon GJO’s Japanese classes were successfully brought to completion in August, and on 1st and 2nd September we had the end of term exams for levels two and three.

LEVEL2は中間試験を受けた18名のうち、14名が受験し、受験者全員が合格しました。このクラスは、法学、化学、国際関係、コンピューターサイエンス、動物学、地質学、考古学、そして国文科と、専攻が多岐にわたっているのが特徴です。放課後自分たちの校舎からわざわざ国文科の校舎まで授業を受けにくるのですから、その熱意には頭が下がります。/Of the 18 people who took the level two midterm exam, 14 took this exam, all of whom passed. In the class, there were students specialising in law, chemistry, international relations, computer science, zoology, geology, archeology, and literature. After class, each came from their own department buildings to the literature department building specially to take the lessons, and that enthusiasm is admirable.

LEVEL3は中間試験の受験者11名全員が受験し、合格しました。このクラスは地理学専攻の一人を除いて全員が国文科専攻です。実はこのクラスは学生の他に国文科の先生2人と他大学の先生一人も受講していました。お仕事がお忙しいため、学生たちより、どうしても理解・習得が遅れがちな先生たち三人を学生たちは常に助けてくれていました。ペアでする練習になると、先生と学生の立場が逆転して、学生たちが先生たちを恭しくも、しっかり引っ張っていってくれて頼もしかったです。女子大生に戻ったかのように無心に練習する先生たちとしっかりした学生たちでこのクラスは和気藹々としていました。/As for level three, all of the students who took the midterm took the exam, and all passed. Aside from one student specialising in geography, all specialise in literature. As a matter of fact, in this class aside from the students there were two literature teachers as well as one teacher from another university attending. Since they were busy with their jobs, the teachers, who had the tendency to be slow to understand and revise more so than the students, were always receiving help from the students. When they were paired up, the students and teachers suddenly switched position, and the students were always respectful and thoroughly reliable towards the teachers. We had a harmonious class, with the teachers innocently practicing almost as though they had returned to their student days, and the dependable students.

色々な方たちのおかげでGJOヤンゴン日本語講座は無事に一学期を終えることができました。赴任したてで、ヤンゴンに不慣れな私を励まし支えてくれた、授業補佐を担当してくれた本学ビルマ語専攻の留学生お二人にこの場を借りてお礼を申し上げます。また、ヤンゴン大学国文科3年生のお二人も授業準備をよく手伝ってくれました。その他の関係者みなさんにも多大のご協力をいただきました。ありがとうございます。/Thanks to so many people, I was able to successfully complete one term of Yangon GJO’s Japanese language unit. I’d like to take this opportunity to thank the two international students of Burmese from TUFS who, when I had just taken up this position and was unfamiliar with Yangon, gave me encouragement and support and provided me with teaching assistance.

期末試験を受験する受講者 /Students taking the end of term exam


■■■日本語教室だより(2016年8月)/
News From the Japanese Classroom (August, 2016)■■■

6月に始まったGJOヤンゴン日本語クラスも8月末に無事終了しました。/Yangon GJO’s Japanese classes, which started in June, were successfully brought to completion in August.

8月末の今学期最後のクラスでLEVEL3の学生に簡単な発表をしてもらいました。「みんなの日本語Ⅰ」の第18課で「私の趣味は~することです」という文型を習ったので、その文型に2,3の説明文を加えて自分の趣味について発表しました。当日出席したのは12人。このクラスでは、映画と旅行が趣味という人が一番多かったです。変わった趣味では「デパートで果物を買うこと」というのがありました。これを聞いてみんな爆笑していました。この映画・旅行に、読書・料理・歌を聴くこと・絵を描くこと・写真を撮ることと続くのですが、スポーツが皆無だったのが印象的でした。ただでさえ暑いヤンゴンで、わざわざスポーツをして汗をかくこともないということでしょうか。男の人たちが適当な場所を見つけてチンロン(籐を編んだボールを使ったサッカーのようなもの)に興じているのをよく見かけますし、ヤンゴン大学構内でも早朝ウォーキングをしている人をちらほら見かけますが、このクラスでは好まれないということですね。/In the last class of the term at the end of August I had the level three students write simple phrases. The students had learnt up to the sentence structure “my hobbies are…” in chapter 18 of “Minna no Nihongo I”, so they did presentations which included the example sentences about their own hobbies. 12 students attended on the day. In the class, the most common hobbies were watching films and travelling. As for the more peculiar hobbies, there was “buying fruit in department stores”. Upon hearing this, everyone burst out laughing. After films and travelling, the next most popular hobbies were reading, cooking, listening to music, drawing pictures and taking photos, and I was surprised to see nobody choose sports. Perhaps it’s because in Yangon’s hot weather you sweat enough already without going to the trouble of playing sports. You often see boys finding a suitable place and amusing themselves by playing chinlone (a game resembling football that uses a ball woven from rattan), as well as people walking on campus early in the morning here and there, but it seems this class just prefers not to.

授業中習った文型を使うこと、それを少し説明することとしか指示しなかったので、どんな発表になるか内心ひやひやしていましたが、みんな多少の文法の間違いはあっても
なかなか面白く良くまとまっていました。もっともっと語彙や文法を学んで自分のことをたくさん日本語で話しせるようになってほしいと思いました。/During lessons I didn’t give the students any instruction aside from using the sentence structures and explaining the a little, so I was anxious about what kind of presentations there would be, and while all of them had some grammar mistakes they were very interesting and well-put together. I would like them to learn even more vocabulary and grammar and become able to say all kinds of things about themselves in Japanese.


■■■日本語教室だより(2016年7月)/
News From the Japanese Classroom (July, 2016)■■■

新学期が始まって1カ月も経ち、やっと漢字の授業を始めることができました。
LEVEL 2のクラスは漢字は全く初めて、LEVEL 3のクラスは教科書の第12課まで終わっているということでした。/One month has passed since the start of the new term, and I was finally able to begin kanji lessons. The level two class was for complete beginners and the level three class went up to chapter 12 in the textbook.

念のため、LEVEL 3のクラスで第13課から始める前に、第10課の復習をすることにしました。第10課の復習ページを宿題に出しておいて、答え合わせをする段階で困ったことが発覚。/Just to make sure, before the level three class began from chapter 13, we went over chapter 10. Any problems came to light through the steps of submitting the revision pages of chapter 10 as homework and checking through the answers.

1番はどうにか出来たものの、2番以降はやってきていない学生続出。3番以降はクラスの優等生たちでさえ出来ないし、やってきていない。いったいどうしたのか尋ねてみると、学生が言うには、「私たちは訓読みは分かりますが、音読みは覚えていません」とのこと。いったい何課までなら覚えていて書けるのか聞いてみると、「第3課まで」。基礎ができていないところに、部首を教えても覚えられるわけがないので、急遽第4課からやり直すことになりました。/There were many students who, despite somehow being able to get through number one, didn’t do number two onwards. As for number three, even the honours students couldn’t manage and came without doing it. When I asked what had happened, the students said “We understand the Japanese readings of the characters, but we haven’t learnt the Chinese readings”. When I asked what chapter they had learnt up to, they said “chapter 3”. Because they had no foundation, even if I were to teach them the radicals there would be no way they’d be able to remember them, so we hurriedly went over the chapters from chapter 4.

写真は第5課の漢字を、教師が順不同に読み上げて書き取りしているところです。
前に出て書く人はやはり音読みの言葉になると分からなくて苦しむので、座っているクラスメートたちが、ミャンマー語で漢字の意味を言って、ヒントを与えようとするので、ミャンマー語は禁止。例えば「モクヨウビ」の「モク」が「木」だと分からない場合、学生たちはミャンマー語でさかんに「ティッピン」「ティッピン」(ミャンマー語で「木」)と小声で助け舟を出すので、「ミャンマー語を使わないでください。訓読みを言ってください」というふうに出来るだけ日本語を使うようにしています。すると誰かが一生懸命教科書をめくって、「きー」「きー」と叫んで無事「木よう日」が書けるといった具合です。/The photographs are of the students writing kanji form chapter 5 that the teacher read out in a random order. Because the students who came up to the front inevitably struggled when a Chinese pronunciation came up, their classmates who were sitting down would give the hints by saying the meaning of the kanji in Burmese, so Burmese was banned. For example, when a student didn’t know that the “moku” in “mokuyōbi” (Thursday) was written with the character “木” (meaning tree, pronounced “ki”), a small but enthusiastic voice would throw them a line by saying “Saitpain! Saitpain!” (the Burmese word for “tree”). So, I tried to get them to use Japanese as much as possible by saying “please don’t use Burmese. Say the Japanese pronunciation”. After doing so, one of them desperately flipped through the textbook shouting “ki… ki…” and was able to successfully write the word for “Thursday”.

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初めはとても漢字に見えず、解読不可能の宇宙人の文字のようだったのが、徐々に上手になってきたので嬉しいです。/At first, there were undecipherable characters that looked more like something an alien might write than kanji, but I’m glad to say that the students gradually got much better.


■■■日本語教室だより(2016年6月)/
News From the Japanese Classroom (June, 2016)■■■

雨季のヤンゴンはほとんど毎日大雨が降ります。今も外は滝のように雨が降り、とても外に出られません。大雨のたびに停電が起こり、オフィスも教室も電気が使えないので、ミャンマー人の先生の中には廊下に椅子を出して熱心に仕事を続ける方もいます。/During the rainy season here at Yangon it heavily rains almost every day. Even now rain is pouring down almost like a waterfall making it almost impossible to step outside. Due to the heavy rain we experienced a power cut and because you cannot use the electricity in the office or in the classrooms some of the teachers from Myanmar were determined to carry on teaching and put chairs out in the hallway.

そんな中、後期授業が始まって2週間ほどたった6月13日にGJOヤンゴンの日本語教室が始まりました。今学期はLEVEL2の授業が月曜日と木曜日の3時半から5時まで、LEVEL3が火曜日と金曜日の同じく3時半から5時まで行われます。最初の1週間は、休み中にみんなの頭の中で眠っていた日本語を起こすために自己紹介と今までの復習をしました。自己紹介では名前・学部・住んでいる所・趣味・将来の夢を語ってもらいましたが、将来の夢では、「先生になりたい」や「研究者になりたい」など優等生そのものでびっくり。誰も「お金持ちになりたい」や「世界旅行したい」など言わないのです。ヤンゴン大生だけなのか、ほかのミャンマー人もそうなのかぜひ知りたいところです。クラスには国文学科の先生たちも参加しているのですが、先生たちも全員「いい研究をしたい」「いいresearch paperを書きたい」と答える人ばかりで真面目そのものでした。/Among this, on the 13th of June, just 2 weeks after the final period of lectures started, the Japanese language class held by the GJO at Yangon University began. For this semester, the Level 2 classes are held on Monday and Thursdays from 15:30 until 17:00 and the Level 3 classes are being held at the same time on Tuesday and Fridays. For the first week, in order to awaken the Japanese knowledge sleeping in the students minds I chose to cover self-introductions and revise everything we had previously covered. For the self-introductions I had the students talk about their name, major, where they live, their hobbies and dreams for the future but when taking about dreams for the future, everyone gave exemplary answers such as “I want to be a teacher” and “I want to become a researcher” which surprised me. Nobody said “I want to become rich” or “I want to travel around the world”. I am really curious whether it is just the students at Yangon University or other people from Myanmar are also the same. There are also teachers from the Literature Department participating in the classes but even all the teachers said such things as “I want to complete good research” or “I want to write a good research paper” which showed just how serious and dedicated to their work they are.
次の週からはそれぞれ「みんなの日本語1」の第10課と第16課を勉強し始めました。みんなだんだん口も動くようになって文型練習も大声で元気いっぱい言ってくれるようになりました。そこで、ミャンマー人の日本語の発音の特徴に気がつきました。「an」の「a」の音をミャンマー人は「a」と「e」の間の音のように発音します。それで、「みかん」は「みきぃあん」、「さとうさん」は「さとうすぃあん」になります。これではせっかく一生懸命勉強して正しい文法で話していても上手に聞こえないので毎回授業のたびに教師が学生の前で大口を開けて「a」や「an」の発音をしてみせ、学生にも復唱させるようにしました。初めはみんなゲラゲラ笑って恥ずかしそうにしていましたが、今は「an」の音を含む単語を発音する時はわざと大声で言うようになりました。/From the following week each of the classes started using “Minna no Nihongo 1” starting from either chapter 10 or chapter 16. Steadily everyone has begun to use their voices and have been saying the answers full of energy during the grammar pattern practice. It was during this that I realized the special trait that people from Myanmar have when they speak Japanese. People from Myanmar pronounce the “a” from “an” with a sound which is in between “a” and “e”. For example when they say “mikan (orange)” it sounds like “mikian” and “satou-san” would become “satou-suian”. It would be a shame if due to this pronunciation their Japanese could not be understood very well after practicing as hard as they could in order to be able to speak with the correct grammar so now during every class the teacher demonstrates the pronunciation and the students must repeat. At first the students laughed and seemed a little embarrassed but now when they pronounce words that contain the “an” sound they purposefully say it clearly in a loud voice.
6月最後の週はLEVEL3で第16課の「Aさんは髪が長いです」「Bさんは背が高いです」の文型を使って、人の体の特徴を述べる練習をしました。応用練習でペアになって、一人の人が自分の恋人や夫がどんな人かこの文型を使って述べて、もう一人がその文型を聞いて相手の恋人の絵を描く練習をしました。/In the final week of June the Level 3 class was using the grammar patterns “A-san wa kami ga nagai desu” and “B-san wa se ga takai desu” from chapter 16 to practice describing the features of people’s bodies. For first hand practice they got into pairs where one person would describe the features of their boyfriend/girlfriend etc using the practiced grammar and the other person would listen and then draw a picture to match the description.
みんなハンサムで格好いい恋人ばかりになりました。/Everyone had drawn very handsome and good looking partners.

恋人の絵を書く練習をする生徒たち/Students drawing pictures of their partners boyfriend/girlfriend


■■■日本語教室だより(2016年3月)/
News From the Japanese Classroom (March, 2016)■■■

3月3日(木)、レベル1クラス期末試験、3月4日(金)レベル2クラス中間試験実施しました。/On the 3rd of March was the level 1 end of semester exam and on the 4th of March was the level 2 class mid-term exam.
レベル1クラス(12月ゼロスタート組)、レベル2クラス(既習組)とも、やはり毎回出席している学生がよい成績をとりました。/As expected, students with good attendance scored well on the tests from both the level 1 class (started from zero in December) and the level 2 class (group with previous experience).
毎回出席して熱心に学習を続ける学生は、日本留学への強い意欲を持っています。授業中おりにふれて、現代日本の社会状況、若者文化状況などを話すと(日本語教育補助者の通訳つき)みな、たのしそうに聞いていました。/Students who attend classes every time and continue to study diligently have a strong willingness to study abroad in Japan. Whenever there is a chance to discuss such topics as the current issues in Japan and popular young culture trends (Interpretation provided by teaching assistant), the students seem to listen intently.
日本の物価の話をすると、物価の高さに驚き、日本の電車は時刻表のとおりの時間に到着出発するので遅れることはごく少ない、というような日本社会の話に、学生たちは熱心に聞き入っていました。まだまだミャンマー国内に、日本の社会状況が十分に伝わっているとはいえない状況であり、日本語教育においては、日本語授業を実施することはむろんのこと、通常の日本語教育以上に、日本の文化や社会について学生に生き生きした情報を伝えることが重要であるように思いました。/When talking about the price of commodities in Japan, they were shocked at how expensive things were. Also, the students showed their interest by enthusiastically listening to the Japanese society explanations such as trains running exactly on time and very rarely arriving or departing late. It can be said that within the country of Myanmar the social conditions of Japan are still mainly unknown and regarding Japanese language education, conducting Japanese language classes goes without saying but as well as the normal Japanese language education, I thought that providing students with interesting information regarding Japanese culture and society is very important.

3月7日(月)と3月8日(火)は、試験返却と「日本文化紹介」の授業を実施しました。紹介したのは、「浴衣」と「折り紙」です。/On the 7th (Mon) and 8th (Tue) of March we held the classes for the return of the exam and the “Japanese Culture Introduction”. For the culture class I introduced “Yukata” and “Origami”.
教師持参の浴衣、男性用1枚と女性用1枚、日本からの留学生が持ってきた浴衣女性用1枚、合計3枚を利用しての「日本の夏の伝統的衣装紹介」です。/Teachers brought one male and one female yukata and a Japanese student studying abroad at Yangon University brought another female yukata so we conducted the “Japanese Summer Traditional Clothing Introduction” with a total of 3 yukata.
まず、着付けの紹介を行いました。実際は素肌に着るのだ、という説明をして、ロンジーTシャツのミャンマー衣装の上から、浴衣を着て、帯は文庫に結ぶところを見せました。/Firstly, we introduced how to put on the yukata. We explained that usually you do not wear anything under a yukata but this time, we had them wear the yukata over their traditional clothes and showed them how to tie a bunko-musubi knot (a style for tying the obi or belt).
次に、順番に浴衣を着てみる「浴衣体験」の時間です。20人の学生に対して3枚の浴衣しかないので、3人ずつグループにして、浴衣着付けを行うグループと、折り紙教室に参加するグループに分かれます。日本人留学生が日本語教育補助としてクラスに入ってくれていましたので、着付けの手伝いをしたり、折り紙を教えたりして活躍してくれました。浴衣を着るのは初めて、という学生が多く、みな自分のアイフォンのカメラを利用して友人同士で互いの写真をとりあったり、一緒に並んで撮ったり、女優さん並みにポーズをつけて写したり、浴衣姿になることを楽しんでいました。折り紙も、折り鶴の他、カブトの折り方を紹介しました。/Following this, we proceeded to the “Yukata Experience” section. Since there were only 3 yukata for 20 students so we got the students to get into groups of 3 and divided them into a further 2 groups, one to try on the yukata and another to experience origami. The foreign student from Japan was in the class as a Japanese education assistant and was kind enough to help others putting on the yukata and teaching the students how to do origami. There were many students who had never worn a yukata before and so everyone was taking photos with their Iphones, taking pictures of their friends, taking pictures together and even posing like film stars whilst enjoying wearing the yukata. At the origami class we introduced how to make cranes and a helmet.

既習組クラスでは、最後にスピーチ発表を行いました。これまでに習った文型をつかって、スピーチする、という課題に、みなじょうずに自己紹介と日本留学への希望を述べていました。/The class with previous experience held a speech presentation at the end.  Regarding the task of using the grammar patterns that they have learned so far to do a speech, everyone was able to skillfully complete a self-introduction and talk about their hopes to study abroad in Japan.
教師が「次の学期で、みなさんの日本語がさらに上達することを期待します」と述べて、締めくくりにしようと思ったのですが、そのあと、思いがけなくミャンマー文化を知るハプニングがありました。/The teacher said “By the next semester I am looking forward to seeing further improvement of your Japanese.” After which we thought we would bring the session to a close but then out of nowhere, we suddenly had an opportunity to experience the culture of Myanmar.
はじめて「教師への礼拝」という当地の習慣を受けたのです。/For the first time we received a “worship towards the teachers” which is a local custom here.

当地では、みな熱心に寺参りをして、釈迦像の前で丁寧なお祈りをささげます。また、仏像だけでなく高僧へも礼拝を行います。それは知っていましたが、当地の「礼拝文化」は、家庭の中にも定着しているのです。子供たちは幼いころから、両親を敬い、折にふれて仏像と同じように両親への礼拝を行います。/Here in Myanmar everyone religiously visits temple and in front of a Buddha statue and gracefully devotes prayer. Also, not only to the Buddha, but they also worship the high priest. I already knew this but the “worship culture” of Myanmar is also established within the household. From a young age children honor their parents and from time to time worship their parents just like they would the Buddha.
礼拝の方法は、次の通り。(1)正座し合掌する。(2)合わせた手を額につける。(3)手を床につけ、額が床につくまで腰を折っておじぎをする。(4)以上を3度繰り返す。/The method of conducting worship is as follows. 1). Sit straight and bring your hands together. 2). Bring your hands up to your forehead. 3). Bring your hands down to the floor then fold at the waist until your head touches the floor as you bow. 4). Repeat the above 3 times.
人々は雨安吾(うあんご)あけ(ダディンジュ祭)の時期に両親へ礼拝をささげるほか、尊敬する人、お世話になった恩人へ礼拝をささげます。学生は、学期の終わりに、特にお世話になった教師、尊敬する教師をクラス全員で礼拝する、という習慣があります。/The people of Myanmar worship their parents during the time of the Buddhist Thadingyut festival after the rainy sason, they also worship the people they respect and who have helped them in some way. There is a custom that students worship teachers who they especially respect or have been in the care of as a whole class at the end of a semester.
日本では、教師を尊敬するといっても、仏像への礼拝とおなじように拝む、という習慣はありませんでしたから、学生たちが教師を半円形に取り囲んで、額を床につけたり合掌したり、仏像を拝むのと同じように、いっせいに教師を拝むので、教師としては、ありがたくもあり、面はゆくもあり、、、、でした。/In Japan, teachers are respected but there is no custom of worshiping them like worshiping to a Buddha. So when the students gathered around the teacher in a semi-circle formation and began lowering their heads to the floor, bringing their hands together and worshiping the teacher just like they would the Buddha, as a teacher it was both very appreciated but also embarrassing.

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ともあれ、新学期立ち上げから3カ月あまりの授業を経て、学期の終わりにこのような教師への礼拝を受けたこと、大感激でした。礼拝を受ける側の作法も知らないので、合掌して「ありがとう」とだけ言いました。/Anyway, roughly 3 months after the start of the new semester we held this class and at the end of the semester we were overwhelmed to receive a gesture such as this. As we were not sure what to do when receiving worship, we just brought our hands together and said “thank you”.
大学教師の説明では、すべての教師に対して礼拝するのではなく、特に感謝をささげたい先生に行う習慣だ、ということです。学生たちが自発的に教師礼拝をおこなうことをきめたこと、GJO日本語教室が学生たちに好評であった証拠として、ここに記録し、今学期のしめくくりとさせていただきます。/According to the teaching staff at the university, worship is not carried out for every teacher, only to those who the students feel especially grateful towards will receive worship. For the students to spontaneously begin to worship is proof that the GJO Japanese class is well thought of and has been greatly welcomed by the students. I would like to record this in this diary and end the current semester on a high note.


■■■日本語教室だより(2016年2月)/
News From the Japanese Classroom (February, 2016)■■■

2月1日(月)、レベル1クラス中間試験、2月2日(火)レベル2クラス中間試験実施しました。レベル1クラスは、Nテストの形式に準拠した日本語試験を実施しましたが、暗記したページを丸ごと書き写す形式の試験のみ受験してきた学生は、Nテスト準拠形式に慣れていない学生が多く、事前に練習問題をして、助詞マル埋め問題、短文作成問題、読解問題などの形式に慣れるよう、1月中に練習を行いました。受験者のうち、毎回出席している学生の成績はかなりよくできました。/On the 1st of February (Mon) the mid-term test was held for the level 1 class and on the 2nd (Tue) the mid-term test was held for the level 2 class. For the level 1 class, I conducted a Japanese language test that complied with the N Test format however, many of the students who are used to memorizing the whole page of information and re-writing it for exams are not accustomed to the N Test standard format, in order for them to get used to it, we set practice questions in January prior to the test which included choosing the correct particle questions, short sentence composition, reading comprehension questions and so on. Out of all the students who took the test, the students with good attendance did really well.

2月中、レベル1、レベル2とも、中間試験の成績がふるわなかった学生は、残念ながら学習継続をあきらめてしまう傾向にあり、最終的にレベル1は20余名。レベル2は18名の学生が出席を続けました。通常授業のほか、期末試験に向けて練習問題を配布して、授業中、また宿題として、試験形式に慣れる練習もつづけました。/By mid-February students who did not do well on the mid-term test from both levels 1 and 2 unfortunately showed a tendency to give up on continuing with their studies and by the end there were just over 20 students in level 1. In level 2 18 students continued to attend. In addition to normal classes, I have distributed more practice questions to get the students prepared for the end of term tests both during class and as homework and continued practice to get the students accustomed to the new exam format.

毎回出席して熱心に学習を続ける学生は、日本留学への強い意欲を持っています。授業中おりにふれて、現代日本の社会状況、若者文化状況などを話すと(日本語教育補助者の通訳つき)みな、たのしそうに聞いていました。/Students who attend classes every time and continue to study diligently have a strong willingness to study abroad in Japan. Whenever there is a chance to discuss such topics as the current issues in Japan and popular young culture trends (Interpretation provided by teaching assistant), the students seem to listen intently.
日本の物価の話をすると、水のペットボトル1本が100円1000チャット(Ks)、だ、ということに、驚き、学生食堂のラーメンが一杯300~400円くらいだという物価の高さに驚く学生がいました。/When I start talking about the price of commodities in Japan, students were shocked to hear that 1 bottle of water costs 100 yen or 1000Ks and there were also students shocked to hear that one bowl of ramen costs as much as 300 to 400 yen.
また、数の学習で日本の紙幣と硬貨を紹介したところ、日本のお金をはじめて見た、という学生もおり、まだまだミャンマー国内に日本の社会状況が十分に伝わっているとはいえないと感じました。日本語教育においては、日本語授業を実施することはむろんのこと、さらに、通常の日本語教育以上に、日本の文化や社会について学生に生き生きした情報を伝えることが重要であるように思いました。/Also, when teaching numbers I introduced the notes and coins of Japan and there were some students who had never seen Japanese money before. It can be said that within the country of Myanmar the social conditions of Japan are still mainly unknown and regarding Japanese language education, conducting Japanese language classes goes without saying but as well as the normal Japanese language education, I thought that providing students with interesting information regarding Japanese culture and society is very important.

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日本語教室試験風景/Students sitting an exam in the Japanese Language Class


■■■日本語教室だより(2016年1月)/
News From the Japanese Classroom (January, 2016)■■■

ヤンゴンの年末年始。大晦日と元日はありません。会社も役所も「平日勤務」です。大晦日がないことは聞いていましたが、元日は1日だけでも休むのかと思っていたので、文化の差を感じました。当地の新年は4月。水掛祭りなど盛大に祝います。/The New Year holiday period in Yangon does not have a New Year’s Eve or New Year’s Day. Companies and government offices have work as usual. I knew that there was no New Year`s Eve but I thought they would rest on New Year`s day so I really felt a difference in culture. Here in Yangon the New Year starts in April. It is grandly celebrated with such events and festivals as the Thingyan Festival(water festival).
12月31日、学科長先生と階段の踊り場ですれ違った際、「今日は国文学科の新入生歓迎会だから、出席してください」とお誘いいただきました。国文学科の学生は少なくなるため、レベル1(ゼロスタートクラス)の日本語教室を「ひらがなの復習」とし、カルタ大会を催すことにしました。ひらがなを導入したばかりなのでどれくらいできるか心配でしたが、日本の正月と正月遊びの代表的なものであるカルタの紹介にもなるので、実施してみました。/On the 31st of December, I bumped into the Department Chairman on the stairs who said “The Literature Department is having a welcoming party for the new students, please attend”. As the students from the Literature Department will lessen in number, I decided to change the level 1 (class with no prior knowledge) Japanese language class to a “Hiragana Revision” class, in which we held a Karuta (traditional card game) competition. I have only just introduced hiragana so I was a little worried about how the students would cope but I decided to introduce the game anyway as it was also a good opportunity to introduce the Japanese New Year and one of the traditional games played at this time of year.
ひらがなカードが5組ありましたので、35名の出席者を5組7名ずつに分け、机の上にカード清音のみを並べて、教師が読み上げた単語のカードを取っていきます。「犬、い、い、い」「傘、か、か、か」「くつ、く、く、く」という具合に、読み上げましたが、ひらがなを習いたての学生たちにはハードな練習で、「い」と横を向いている「こ」を間違えたり、「れ」と「ね」と「わ」の違いがわからなかったりしました。しかし、学生たちは、楽しそうにゲームに参加し、外で行われているカラオケ大会も気にせずに打ち興じていました。50音のカルタで、17枚取得の学生がチャンピオンになりました。/There were 5 sets of Hiragana cards to use between 35 participants so we split them into groups of 7, placed only the sounds of the card on top of the cards and had the students take the card of the word read aloud by the teacher. Words were read out like “Inu, I, I, I (dog)”, “Kasa, ka, ka, ka (umbrella)” and “kutsu, ku, ku, ku (shoe)” however, for the students who have only just learned hiragana it was a tough exercise and the students had trouble distinguishing 「い」 and 「こ」 and not recognizing the differences between 「れ」, 「ね」 and 「わ」. Though despite this, the students seemed to appear to enjoy taking part in the game and had a great time without even noticing the karaoke competition that was going on outside. In a Karuta game with 50 sounds, a student that collected 17 cards became the champion.

1月下旬にひらがなのテストを実施しました。これは、前学期、6月にゼロスタートとなった学生たちにはなかなか「ひらがな」「カタカナ」が定着しなかったことの反省からです。前年度は「楽しく日本語にふれる」ことを主な目標としていましたが、今年度は節目節目で「ひらがな」「カタカナ」のテストを実施しています。試験を予告し、練習問題で試験形式に慣れさせたうえで、実施したひらがなテストでは、受験したほとんどの学生は80点以上を取得し、たいへんよい成績でした。/At the end of January I conducted a hiragana test. This was mainly because on reflection, for the students that started learning from scratch in June they never quite got accustomed to both “Hiragana” and “Katakana”. In the last academic year the main objective of this class was to “Enjoy Experiencing Japanese language” but now at each turning point I am conducting “Hiragana” and “Katakana” tests. As for the results of the hiragana test for which I gave previous notice, practice questions and made sure they knew the test format, almost all students scored over 80% which was a great set of results.

レベル2(既習組)クラスでは漢字学習が始まっています。山や川などの絵からできた象形文字や、「女のひとは子どもがすきです。だから、『女』+『子』は、『好』きです」などの会意文字に、みな興味を持って漢字にとりくみました。ミャンマー文字の複雑な形に目が慣れているおかげか、アルファベット使用言語の学生よりも文字形の認識がよく、「大、犬、太」の違いもすぐに納得です。「かんじはむずかしいです。でも、おもしろいです」と言います。/The level 2 class (students with prior knowledge) has started to learn kanji. Starting with letters which originally came from hieroglyphs such as mountain and river then moving onto ideograph letters such “women like children. So when you combine the letter for woman and the letter for child together, it makes the letter like”. Everyone is enjoying tackling the challenge of learning kanji. Perhaps because their eyes are used to reading the complex shapes of the letters of Myanmar but they seem to recognize the shape of similar letters better than students who are used to using the alphabet. For example they were quickly able to grasp the differences between the kanji for big, dog and thick (which are all very similar kanji). The students say that “Kanji is difficult but it is interesting”.
「一」の字を習ったあと、「一月一日」の「一日」を「ついたち」と読む、など熟字訓も出てきて、漢字習得は日本語学習の大きな山場ですが、熱心な学生たちは、がんばってくれることと思います。/After learning the kanji for the number 1, I introduced “1 month and 1 day” and the special kanji readings that applied. Learning kanji is a great hurdle within learning the Japanese language but I believe the enthusiastic students will try their best.


■■■日本語教室だより(2015年12月)/
News From the Japanese Classroom (December)■■■

ヤンゴン大学の新学期は12月に始まります。学生たちは地方の実家から、ヤンゴン市内の家から順次大学に集まってきて、進級生は科目登録などを始めます。新入生の入学式、文学科は12月10日に行われましたが、いつが入学式でいつが科目登録締め切りかなどの大学暦はなく、学生にも教師にも口答連絡のみなので、個々に情報を集めて行動することになるようです。ヤンゴン大学との交換留学でビルマ語を学ぶ東外大からの留学生に聞いてみましたが、それぞれの授業の先生に質問して、いつから授業が始まるか聞き、学生同士情報を交換するということでした。/The new term will start in December at Yangon University. The students will be arriving from their hometowns and from Yangon city assembling at the University and the new students will be registering for their classes. The entrance ceremony for the new students in the literature department was held of the 10th of December, however there was no calendar specifying when the opening ceremony was or when the deadline for course registration was for example, so it seems both students and teachers will have to rely only on word of mouth to individually gather information and then act accordingly. We asked students from TUFS who are participating in the year abroad exchange program and are studying Burmese at Yangon University, who said they will ask the relevant teachers when the classes start and then exchange that information among other students.

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レベル1授業風景。奥平先生によるコース説明/A look at the level 1 class, course explanation given by Mr. Okuhira

日本語クラスの登録は、国文学科事務室を窓口として行われました。2015年9月まで日本語クラスに出席していた既習クラス(レベル2)と、新しく日本語学習を始めるクラス(レベル1)です。9月に、新学期開始の際はレベルチェックテスト(プレイスメントテスト)が実施されるというアナウンスを聞いていた学生はごく少数だったため、既習クラスのためには、2週間4回の復習クラスを設けてから、1~6課の内容についてプレイスメントテストを実施しました。登録者38名のうち、18名が合格、2名が再試験の上、受講許可となりました。レベル1の登録締め切りは、国文学科入学式後の12月11日になりました。120名の登録者から、50名を選抜してクラス編成をする、という要請が国文学科長よりあり、レベル1クラスの選抜が行われました。プレイスメントテストの前にカタカナ授業を実施し、カタカナ試験とビルマ語による作文「私が持つ日本への関心」によって40名が合格、12名が再試験の上受講許可となりました。12月4週目から授業が開始され、みな熱心に受講をしています。/The registration for the Japanese classes took place at the counter of the Japanese literature department. Until September 2015 there were two classes, one that had already started learning Japanese (Level 2), and one that was about to start learning Japanese (Level 1). In September at the beginning of the new term, due to the fact that few students heard the announcement regarding the planned level test (placement test), four revision classes were provided over two weeks for the level 2 students after which the placement test took place on chapters 1-6. Out of 38 students that registered, 18 passed, 2 had to re-take but also passed. The deadline for the level 1 course is now the 11th of December.  The Japanese Literature Department manager requested that out of the 120 students who registered, that a class of 50 students should be organized and the selection process for the level 1 class was held. Before the placement test, a class on Katakana was carried out and an exam on Katakana and then an essay to be written in Burmese titled “Why I am interested in Japan”, according to these tests 40 students passed and 12 students were given permission to advance on the re-test. The classes began from the 4th week of December and everyone is attending the classes full of enthusiasm.

大学暦がなく、全体への行事のお知らせは当日にという当地の習慣。GJOにはお知らせがなかったので、通常授業の予定をたてていたところ、12月18日は、理系学部大学祭のために全学休講でした。授業のあるなしは、個々の教師にたずねて確認する、という大学の方針に従う学生は授業にくるでしょう。しかし、全学休講という情報を信じる学生は来ないでしょう。教科書の日本語学習を進めてしまったら、休講と思って出席しなかった学生が不利になる。教師に確認して授業があると思って出席した学生は、せっかく大学にやってきたのに、授業がなければがっかりします。/Since there is no University calendar, the local custom here is that event announcements are made on the day. The Global Japan Office (GJO) was not informed about the University closing on the 18th of December due to the University’s science department festival, and so continued to make preparations for regular classes. To find out whether you had classes or not, the students that followed the University`s policy of individually visiting each teacher and asking for confirmation will probably attend University. However, students believing the information that the University will be closed almost certainly will not come to classes. The students who did not attend classes because of the closure and who had progressed through the Japanese learning part of the textbook would be at a disadvantage. Students who had confirmed with the teachers and attended University believing they had classes will be disappointed.

そこで、12月18日は、この機会を利用して「日本文化の授業」とし、外語大から来ている交換留学生2名とともに、「日本の文化―女の子の遊び」という特別授業を行いました。交換留学生島崎さんと久宗さんには、手遊び歌「アルプス一万尺」を実演してもらいました。ヤンゴン大学教員の先生方が、ミャンマーのじゃんけん「トラ、王様、銃」を紹介、お手玉をするなど、楽しい文化交流となりました。最後の文化紹介は折り紙。みな、一枚ずつ好きな色を選び、鶴を織り上げました。/Therefore on the 18th of December, using this as an opportunity, we decided to conduct a “Japanese Culture Class” where 2 of the foreign exchange students from TUFS helped carry out a special lecture “Japanese Culture, women’s games”. Exchange students Ms. Shimazaki and Ms. Hisamune gave a demonstration of a hand game melody called “10,000ft in the Alps”. One of the teachers from Yangon University introduced the Myanmar version of rock, paper scissors (tiger, king, gun), there was also juggling bags and other such activities and it became a fun cultural exchange. The final cultural introduction was origami. Everyone picked one colored piece of paper and made a crane.

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和太鼓演奏をする、ビルマ語学科4年の鈴木君/Japanese drum performance by 4th year Burmese major Mr. Suzuki

12月13日日曜日に、日本大使館とヤンゴン日本人会などの主催による日本文化フェスティバル「ジャパンプエトー」が開催されました。日本の文化を紹介するフェスティバルに大勢のヤンゴン市民が集まり、日本の武術紹介、着物の着付け体験などを楽しんでいました。/On Sunday the 13th of December, the Japanese culture festival “Japan Pueto” which was sponsored by the Japanese embassy and Yangon Japanese association was held. A large number of Yangon residents gathered for the festival introducing Japanese culture and enjoyed showings of Japanese martial arts, and other activities such as the chance to try on a kimono.

中でも、国際交流基金の「日本語パートナーズ」で派遣され、ヤンゴン外国語大学で日本語教育補助員として勤務している鈴木君が、見事な和太鼓演奏を披露したのが印象的でした。鈴木君は、東外大ビルマ語学科の4年生です。1年間休学をして、当地の日本語教育に貢献し、さらには5歳のころから20年間修業を続けてきたという和太鼓演奏によって、ミャンマーと日本の文化交流に貢献しました。東京外語大生が、こうして各地の文化交流や日本語教育に活躍しているのを知り、うれしく思いました。/Also inside, the International exchange fund “Japanese language partners” Mr. Suzuki who works as the Japanese language education assistant at Yangon University of foreign studies put on a splendid Japanese drum performance which was one of the highlights. Mr. Suzuki is a 4th year student from TUFS who is majoring in Burmese. Taking a year out and contributing to the Japanese language education here, what is even more impressive is that for 20 years, since the age of 5 he has continued to contribute to the cultural exchange between Japan and Myanmar through his Japanese drum performances. It makes me happy knowing that TUFS students like Mr. Suzuki are playing an active part in Japanese language education and cultural exchange in various regions around the world.


■■■日本語教室だより(2015年9月)/
News From the Japanese Classroom (September)■■■

ヤンゴン大学は、9月に期末試験が行われます。学生たちは試験が終わると、みな声が枯れる、と言います。それは、試験勉強が暗記中心であり、暗記のためには、教科書に描かれていることをノートに筆記し、それを暗唱して覚えていくからです。声が枯れるほど暗唱すれば、よい成績が取れます。/The University of Yangon will hold their final examinations this September. The students’ voices are sure to grow hoarse after completing their exams, the reason being that memorization is the core focus of their exam revision. In order for them to memorize their work, the students copy out the notes written in their textbooks and then remember what they have written by reciting them. The hoarser the students’ voices are the more they will recite, meaning they can obtain a good grade.

8月末に「期末試験対策講座」が開かれると、学生たちは「教科書のどの部分が試験にでるだろうか」という関心を持って、3:30-5:00に開講される試験対策授業に出ます。こまったことに、日本語教育が行われている時間帯と同じ時間帯の授業なのです。そのため、8月末から日本語受講生はぐんと減ります。9月になると、在学生受講生は1~2名という状態になり、教員受講生と授業を進めました。/A class titled “Course on Final Exam Counter-measures” was opened at the end of August. All students who are concerned wondering “Which parts in the textbook will appear in the exam?” attend this class from 3:30pm-5:00pm. Unfortunately, the class is held at the same time as their Japanese language classes. As a result, the number of students attending Japanese lectures has fallen considerably since the end of August. Since September, the number of enrolled students attending the lectures has dropped to a mere 1 to 2 students, and lecturers have continued teaching their own classes.

9月から火金には、日本への研究派遣が決定しているヤンゴン大学理系教師のための日本語教育が開始されました。ローマ字による教材を自主作成し、ビルマ語の訳語を付記するテキストを使用しました。さいわい、テキストも学生になじみやすかったらしく、みな積極的に授業に参加しました。/On Tuesdays and Fridays from September, Japanese classes will begin for science teachers at the University of Yangon as research from Japan has been dispatched. Teaching materials are prepared in Romaji and texts are provided and used in Burmese. Luckily, the texts are familiar to the students and easy to understand, which has led to everyone actively participating in lessons.

90分×6回の授業でしたが、最後には出席者それぞれが日本語による自己紹介を披露しました。 「わたしは、ヤンゴン大学の教師です。日本でバイオロジーを研究します。家族は、父と母と私です。どうぞ、よろしくお願いします」という程度の簡単な自己紹介でしたが、いっしょうけんめい暗記して、立派にスピーチができました。/Although each of the six classes lasted only 90 minutes, each student who attended was able to give a self-introduction by the end. “I am a lecturer here at the University of Yangon. I am researching biology in Japan. In my family are myself, my mother and my father. I look forward to working with you.” Although a simple self-introduction, the lecturer was able to memorize the passage with utmost effort and gave a splendid speech.

また、最終日に、日本の衣料文化紹介として、浴衣を着る体験授業も行いました。帯板、腰ひもなどが不足していたので、きれいな着付けはできませんでしたが、日本の浴衣を着たセヤマ―(女性教師)は、嬉しそうでした。/A class introducing the culture of Japanese clothing was also held on the final day, where people could experience wearing a yukata. Despite not having enough obiita (a piece of fabric worn under an obi – the sash worn around kimono) or koshihimo (string that is tied around the waist of a kimono before tying the obi) to go around, meaning not everyone was able to wear the yukata as it is meant to be worn, the female teachers in charge of the class still seemed very happy.


■■■日本語教室だより(8月)/News from the Japanese Language Classroom (August)■■■

日本語教育インストラクター 稲村すみ代/Dr. Sumiyo Inamura, Japanese-Instructor

雨期真っ盛りのヤンゴン。一日に強い雨弱い雨が降ったりやんだりします。教員宿舎の周辺道路の低いところは道路が水没し、川のようになったところもありましたが、大学周辺は、さすがに歩けないような道路はありません。舗装していないところを通ると、足が泥んこになります。/Yangon is in the height of the rain season. Each day brings heavy rain and light rain that falls and ceases. The low roads surrounding the teaching staffs’ living quarters are submerged in water, and some places have become like rivers, but one is still able to walk in the surrounding vicinity of the university. If one walks off the pavement their feet will become stuck in mud.

授業開始の午後3時半に、あまりに雨が強かった日、学生出席率はやはり落ちてしまいました。雨の中、教室に濡れながらもやってきた日本語学習者たちは、軒のひさしを打つドラム連打のような激しい雨音にもまけじと、「わたしは、日本の料理が好きです」「わたしは、日本語が、少しわかります」など声をだし、みな熱心に学習を続けていました。/The rain was severe at 3:30pm at the time of class starting, and as one would expect the students’ attendance rate fell greatly. The Japanese language students entered the classroom drenched by the rain, and as the violent sound of the rain barraged the eaves of the roof, students enthusiastically continued their language studies, with voices saying “I like Japanese cooking” and “I understand a little bit of Japanese”.

6月7月の2か月間、若いパワーで日本語教育に貢献された田村あき先生は、学生たちに惜しまれながら、8月15日、帰任されました。/For the months of June and July, Ms. Aki Tamura, who contributed to the teaching of Japanese language with youthful power, although greatly valuing the students, had to return to her post on August 15th.

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日本語教室で、学習者と交流する日本人留学生/Japanese exchange students communicating with students

8月9月の授業を担当する稲村は、4つのレベルのクラスを引き継ぎました。教科書文型積み上げ授業は、月曜日4課から、火曜日8課から、木曜日5課から、金曜日6課から、という進捗状況です。読み書き指導、ゼロスタートクラスの文字教育は、ひらがな導入が終わったところ。カタカナ導入から入りました。/I was in charge of the classes in August and September and taught 4 different classes of varying levels. The class textbooks focused on varying levels of Japanese grammar, which progressed as: Monday beginning at Chapter 4, Tuesday beginning at chapter 8, Thursday beginning at Chapter 5 and Friday beginning at Chapter 6. Japanese character classes were for those starting from scratch, focusing on reading and writing, and which brought in Hiragana. Katakana has just been introduced.

8月9日にヤンゴンに到着した外語大ビルマ語専攻の1年生10名のうち、日本語教育に興味を持っている学生が日本語授業を見学し、スキット対話の相手役をつとめるなど、授業に参加してくれました。ビルマ語はまだ修行中の留学生たちですが、いっしょうけんめい会話の相手をつとめるなど、日本語学習者と交流ができました。/10 first year students majoring in Burmese language who arrived in Yangon on August 9th hold an interest in Japanese-language education, and so observed the language classes, as well participating in classes such as engaging in roleplaying while listening to the students’ efforts to respond. The Burmese students are still studying to be accepted as exchange students, but they have successfully been able to communicate with students of Japanese language by working hard to engage in conversation.

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ヤンゴンGJO図書を眺めている日本人留学生/Japanese exchange students gazing at the books in the Yangon GJO library

8月26日水曜日、午後3時―4時、外語大ビルマ語教員で、ヤンゴンGJO立ち上げの中心になってくださった岡野先生が、日本語、日本文化に関する講演をなさいました。ビルマ語での講演に、ヤンゴン大学国文学科の在籍生、先生方、日本からの外語大留学生らが聴講し、大盛況でした。講演では、「こんにちは」「おはよう」などの日本語挨拶言葉を取り上げ、日本人が実際にどのように挨拶をかわすか、友達同士、先生と、など状況を変えて、留学生がロールプレイを示しました。ビルマ語との違いなど、岡野先生のお話に、聴衆はときに大笑いしながら、聞き入っていました。「おはよう」のひとことをとりあげても、ことばの背景に広がる日本文化の豊かさが伝わる内容に、みなたいへん感銘を受けた60分の講演でした。/On Wednesday 26th August 3pm-4pm, Professor Okano, who established Yangon GJO, held a lecture relating to Japanese language and Japanese culture along with the Burmese teaching staff of TUFS. The lecture, which was held in Burmese, was a great success, and was attended by those studying Burmese literature at the University of Yangon, teachers, and Japanese exchange students from TUFS. Japanese greetings such as “Konnichiwa” (“Hello”/”Good afternoon”) and “Ohayou” (“Good morning”) were used during the lesson, and the exchange students were able to change their greetings depending on the status of the person they were taking to, such as friends and teachers, as they roleplayed. The students laughed as they listened to an explanation of the difference between the Burmese language provided by Professor Okano. The students learned much from the 60 minute lecture, where the context of words even such as “Ohayou” was explained against the background of rich Japanese culture.


■■■日本語教室だより(7月)/
News from the Japanese Language Classroom (July)■■■

月曜・木曜クラスの出席者の数が、どちらも35名程度に安定してきました。6月から少しずつひらがなを勉強し始め、やっとほぼ全てのひらがなを学び終えたので、先日、月曜クラスでは抜き打ちひらがな50音テストを行いました。いきなりのテストにも関わらず、満点の人も少なからずおり、家での努力を感じました。また、4~5人のグループに分けて行ったひらがなカルタは大変盛り上がり、楽しくひらがなを復習することができました。みんなカタカナよりもひらがなの方が好きなようですが(ビルマ文字が丸っこいからでしょうか?)、この調子でカタカナも学んでいってほしいです。/The number of students who attended the Monday class and Wednesday class stabilized to 35. The students began learning Hiragana little by little since June, and after finally learning each character, a surprise Hiragana listening test was held during Monday’s class. In spite of the test being given without warning, the majority of students obtained a perfect score and their endeavors from studying at home were clear to see. Moreover, the students were able to enjoy reviewing Hiragana as they were split into groups of 4-5 people to play Hiragana karuta (a type of Japanese card game). Even though the students prefer Hiragana over Katakana (perhaps because it is closer to Burmese script?) they would like to learn Katakana this way too.

授業で使用したひらがなカルタ/Hiragana karuta cards used in the class

授業で使用したひらがなカルタ/Hiragana karuta cards used in the class

7月半ばに日本大使館で日本映画の上映会が行われました。授業後、火曜クラスの数名の学生と共に、「ひみつの花園」という映画を見に行きました。学生たちは、日本大使館入口で渡された入館証をしげしげと眺め、「この漢字は何ですか。」と質問してくれました。映画鑑賞中も、知っている言葉があると小さい声で呟いてみたり、映画を楽しむだけでなく、常に日本語にも注目しており、学習意欲の高さを感じました。/A Japanese film was screen at the Japanese embassy in the middle of July. I went to see a film titled Himitsu no Hanazono (eng: My Secret Cache) with the students of the Tuesday class after lessons had finished. The students often glanced at their admission passes and would ask with curiosity “What is this Kanji?” at the entrance of the Japanese embassy. Even during the screening of the film, the students would whisper in a quiet voice if a word which they knew appeared, so not only did the students enjoy the film, their motivation to learn was felt as they constantly paid attention to and noticed the Japanese used.

また、東京外国語大学から寄贈された本や漫画の配架が完了し、ヤンゴン大学GJOは、日本語の本や漫画の図書館としてもスタートしました。学生たちは、突然現れた大量の本や漫画に目を丸くし、興味深そうに手を伸ばしていました。やはり、人気があるのは漫画です。しかし、寄贈された漫画は『うる星やつら』や『YAWARA!』など懐かしいものが多く、学生たちには馴染みのないものだったようです。少しずつ学生たちの興味に寄り添っていければと思っています。/Additionally, an arrangement was made in which books and manga were donated by TUFS, so the University of Yangon GJO was able to establish their own library full of Japanese books and manga. The students stared in wonder as the library began to fill with books and manga written in Japanese. Their interest deepened as they stretched out their hands to reach for the books. Undoubtedly, the manga was very popular. However, a lot of the manga that was donated is manga that is filled with nostalgia, such as Urusei Yatsura and YAWARA!, so it is not something that the students are familiar with. I hope it will become part of their interests.


■■■日本語教室だより(6月)/News from the Japanese Classroom (June)■■■

Global Japan Office入口。日本人留学生・日本に興味のある現地学生などたくさんの方に利用いただいてます。/Entrance to the Global Japan Office. This room is for Japanese exchange students, students from the university who have an interest in Japan, and so on.

Global Japan Office入口。日本人留学生・日本に興味のある現地学生などたくさんの方に利用いただいてます。/Entrance to the Global Japan Office. This room is for Japanese exchange students, students from the university who have an interest in Japan, and so on.

6月に入り、ヤンゴン大学は2学期が始まりました。それに伴い、今学期からの日本語受講希望者が大幅に増えました。特徴としては、1学期はミャンマー文学科の学生が中心でしたが、今学期の受講希望者は多岐に渡り、理系学科からも希望者が来てくれました。また、先生方の希望者も増え、100名を超える大所帯となりました。前学期から引き続き勉強している学生と今学期から始める学生との間にレベルの差があること、時間の制約があること、また日本語教師が1人しかいないことから、クラスを4つに分け、各クラス週に1回、90分の授業を行うことになりました。授業の回数は減ってしまいましたが、その分宿題を出して対応しています。以下がクラス分けの概要です。/June – the University of Yangon has begun its second semester. In accordance with this, the number of applicants to study Japanese has increased substantially. In the first semester, it was mainly those studying Myanmar who wished to study Japanese, but this semester has seen interest crossing over even to those who are majoring in science. The number of teachers hoping to study Japanese continued to increased, surpassing 100 applicants. Classes have been divided into 4 due to a number of reasons, including there being a difference in language ability between those who have continued studying Japanese language from the previous semester and those beginning their studies, because there is a limitation on the amount of study time, and because there is only 1 teacher. Therefore, it has been decided that each class will be held once a week for 90 minutes. Since the number of class held has decreased, more homework is handed out. Below is an outline of how the classes are divided.

初級0=今学期から日本語を学び始める人。これからひらがな・カタカナを学ぶ。/Elementary Level 0 = For those who are new to learning Japanese. They will learn Hiragana and Katakana.

初級1=前学期から引き続き日本語を学ぶ人。ひらがな・カタカナは学習済み。/Elementary Level 1 = For those continuing on from the first semester. They have completed Hiragana and Katakana.

  • 月曜クラス 初級0 約70名/Monday class – Elementary Level 0 – approx. 70 attendees
  • 火曜クラス 初級1 約15名/Tuesday class – Elementary Level 1 – approx. 15 attendees
  • (水曜日は6月限定で奥平先生による日本文化の授業が開講されていました。)/(Wednesdays are limited to June in which lectures regarding Japanese culture are held by Professor Okano)
  • 木曜クラス 初級0 約70名/Thursday class – Elementary Level 0 – approx. 70 attendees
  • 金曜クラス 初級1 約10名/Friday class – Elementary Level 1 – approx. 10 attendees/li>
IMG_0021

授業で使用している教材。/Learning materials used during class time.

日本語に興味がある人がこんなにいるとは思わず、嬉しい限りです。一人一人に目を向けることは難しくなりましたが、授業を手伝ってくれている外大からの留学生たちと協力して、進めて行きたいと思っています。/I am overwhelmingly happy at the number of people who are interested in learning Japanese. It has become difficult to focus on each individual, but with such great help from the exchange students at TUFS I think it is something I want to continue with.

初級0のクラスでは、90分の中で口頭による文型練習・会話練習と文字(ひらがなから)の学習をします。先日、ひらがなのな行を学習したところで、例として「いぬ・ねこ」を出しました。ヤンゴンには野良犬や野良猫が多くおり、ヤンゴン大学内でもよく見かけます。授業後、教室を出たところで犬がじゃれている場面に遭遇し、学生達が嬉しそうに「いぬ!いぬです!」と言っていました。学んだ言葉を使ってみる。語学学習において大切な方法です。まだまだ知っている日本語は少ないですが、どんどん使っていって欲しい、と思った場面でした。/For the duration of the 90 minutes in the Elementary Level 0 class, students study grammar, conversation and the Japanese alphabet (starting with Hiragana). The other day when studying the “na” row of characters, we used the example of “inu” (dog) and “neko” (cat). There are many stray cats and dogs – you can even spot them around the university. Upon finishing class, students left the classroom and encountered a playful dog, and said happily “Inu! Inu desu!” (“A dog! It’s a dog!”). They tried out using a new word they had learned. That’s an important method to use in language learning. Although they have a lot of Japanese to learn, it seemed like the students wanted to begin to use the language more.


■■■日本語教室だより(2/16~3/13)■■■/News From the Japanese Language Classroom (February 16th-March 13th)

ヤ ンゴン大学での日本語教室は、大学の授業が終わった後、文学部棟にて、15時30分から17時まで行なっています。日本語の授業は2クラスあり、月曜と木 曜が文学部2年生中心のクラス、火曜と金曜が文学部1年生中心のクラスで、1月下旬から始まり、2月16日から、私が担当しています。水曜日は合同授業 で、奥平先生による日本事情の講義がビルマ語で行なわれています。また、学生だけではなく、先生方の出席もあります。/Japanese language classes at the University of Yangon are held after university lectures have ended from 15:30 to 17:00 in the literature department building. Two Japanese classes are held; classes for second year literature students are held on Mondays and Thursdays while classes for first year students are held on Tuesdays and Fridays. The classes start at the end of January, and I will be in charge of them from February 16th. Joint classes are carried out on Wednesdays with both the first and second year students where Professor Okano holds classes on Japan in Burmese, and teachers also attend the lectures.

受講希望者が多かった ため、2クラスに分かれることになりました。当初は1クラス30人近い受講者がいましたが、放課後の課外授業ということもあって、参加者はだんだん20人 以下に落ち着いてきました。同じ学年でクラスを構成しているせいか、雰囲気は良く、わかる人がわからない人に教えたり、答えを間違えると突っ込みが入った りします。/Due to the large number of applicants wanting to study Japanese, students have been divided into two classes. At first, the number was close to 30 students in one class, but since there were afterschool extracurricular activities, the number of attendees settled to less than 20. Due to the fact that classes are organized based on students being in the same year, the atmosphere is pleasant, and students who know answers teach those who don’t, and are quick to correct any mistakes made.

ひらがな・カタカナを覚えることから始まり、学ぶ時間も1週間に3時間程度、日本語だけで授業をしていることもあって、勉強はゆっくりと進みました。/Beginning with memorizing Hiragana and Katakana, the study moves smoothly as classes, held once a week for three hours, are taught solely in Japanese.

<2/16~2/20>

ご くごく初級でも、覚えた言葉を使って楽しくコミュニケーションできることを改めて感じました。例えば、「どこ(国)の○○(製品)ですか」という文型が出 てきたとき、私は、「ミャンマーの○○です」という答えを期待して、教室内にあるものを指して質問をしました。ところが、答えには「中国のマイクです」 「タイのペンです」等の豊かな情報が含まれ、教室でいろいろな国の製品が使われていることがわかりました。また、ミャンマーでは大学前の過程が日本より短 いとは聞いていたのですが、実際に「17歳です」と言われると、新鮮な情報に触れた気持ちになりました。/Despite there being stuttering in the elementary levels, I repeatedly felt that students were able to enjoy communicating amongst each other by using the words they had remembered. For example, when the sentence “What (country) is that (product) from?” was used, I would hope for an answer such as “It is a… from Myanmar”, and we pointed at and asked about things inside the classroom. Answers were plentiful and included “It is a Chinese microphone” and “It is a Thai pen”. It was understood that items from various countries were being used around the room. I also asked if the process before going to university in Myanmar is shorter than in Japan, and was told that students attend when they are 17 years old. The answer was given so naturally.

<2/23~2/27>

ヤ ンゴン大学に留学中の外大生4名に協力してもらい、覚えた内容を練習してもらいました。小さなグループに分かれて、「~です」「~ではありません」「なん ですか」「いくらですか」等、限られた文型や単語でしたが、たくさん話してもらいました。また、留学生の方々に中に入ってもらうことによって、受講生の様 子もわかりました。/I received help from 4 University of Yangon exchange students, and they kindly practiced the contents of what they had learned. Students were split into small groups, and although their sentence patterns and vocabularies were limited, using structures such as “desu”, “dewa arimasen”, “nan desuka”, “ikura desu ka” and so on, they were able to speak a lot.

不思議に感じますが、勉強のスタートは同じでも、2年生は比較的覚えが早く、1年生は、2年生よりもひらがな・カタカナ等に少し苦労しているようです。ミャンマーで日本語を勉強しており、身近に日本語の文字がそうそうあるわけではないので、しかたがないかもしれません。/It’s strange, but it seems that when students start studying, the second years are comparatively quicker to remember things than the first years. For example, the first year students end up finding it difficult to recall things such as Hiragana and Katakana.

<3/2~3/6>

3週目は、3月2日(月)と4日(水)がミャンマーの祝日だったこともあり、授業はますますのんびり進みました。行事と言えば、3月3日の雛祭り。1年生のクラスがあったので、みんなで、折り紙で簡単な雛人形を作りました。/There were Myanmar nation holidays during the third week on March 2nd and 4th, so the classes have been much more relaxed. March 3rd was the Hinamatsuri or “Doll’s Day” or “Girl’s Day”, an annual festival held in Japan on March 3rd. Since I had the first year class that day, we made simple dolls made from origami paper together.

2 年生のクラスでは、ねこが教室に入ってきました。ふと、「これはなんですか」と尋ねてみたら、まだ勉強にしていないのに、学生から「ねこです」という答え が返ってきました。課外授業ですが、日本語に興味を持って、自分でいろいろ勉強してくれていることを嬉しく思いました。/A cat entered the second year classroom. Even though we hadn’t started studying yet, one of the students asked in Japanese “What is that?” to which the students replied, in Japanese, “It’s a cat”. I was delighted to see that the students were interested in Japanese and were studying by themselves despite it being an extracurricular class.

<3/9~3/13>

ヤ ンゴン大学では、3月末に、第1セメスターの期末試験があります。学生たちはその準備に忙しくなり、週明け9日(月)の2年生クラスは学生4人、先生4人 でした。何と言えばいいのかを調べてきたのか、ある学生が「試験ですから」と出席者が少ない理由を説明してくれました。この週から、勉強のための暗唱が大 学内のあちこちから聞こえてきたような気がします。10日(火)の1年生クラスは学生が1人、11日(水)からは先生方のみの出席になりました。/At the end of March, the first semester final examination will be held at the University of Yangon. All the students have become very busy with preparation for the exam that there were only 4 students and 4 teachers in the second year class at the beginning of this week (March 9th). I tried looking for the reason as to why there were so few students attending, and one student kindly informed me of the reason: “It’s because of the exam”. I feel like I have heard the students doing their memorization study from around the university this week. Only one student from the first year class attended on the 10th (Tuesday), while only teachers attended on the 11th (Wednesday).

来週末から期末試験が始まりますが、先生方はクラスに出席するとおっしゃってくださっているので、16日からも、授業はもう少し続けることになりました。/The final examinations will begin next week, but the teachers who are attending the class have been kindly taking with me, so the class will continue for a little longer from the 16th.